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INDIANS 

AT -WORK 





FEBRUARY I, I937 

A NEWS SHEET FOR. INDIANS 
AND THE INDIAN SERVICE 



OFFICE- OF- INDIAN -AFFAIR 

WASHINGTON, D. C . 




.INDIANS AT WORK 

CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF FEBRUARY 1, 1937. 

Number 12 
Volume IV Page 

Editorial John Collier and 

Willard W. Beatty 1 

Senate and House Committees On Indian 

Affairs Organize 8 

The Navajo Blizzard E. R. Fryer 10 

Reorganization News * 16 

Important Indian Service Meetings 

Scheduled 17 

"Hill 57" D'Arcy McNickle 19 

Foreword Of Indian Office Annual Report 

For 1936 22 

The Organization Of The Papagos John H. Hoist 23 

After Election T. B. Hall 28 

Old Indian Bureau Annual Report 29 

Working For Children's Clothes At 

Potato Creek, Pine Ridge Agency Charles Under Baggage, Sr... 32 

Hoist Begins Adult Education Plan 33 

Cover Design 33 

Helping The Navajos Help Themselves M. E. Musgrave 35 

Indian Series Goes On Local Radio Stations. Gerard Beeckman 41 

Indian Society Seeks Complete List Of 

Indians Holding University Degrees 43 

An Indian Story; And A Good One Edward Bear 44 

Bitter Vfeather At Walaoai Guy Hobgood 45 

"The Green Corn Offering" 47 

Road Work At Crow Agency, Montana P. J. Van Alstyne 48 

From I.E.C.W. Reports 49 




In Indian country the Office of Indian Affairs and the Government in 
general are often spoken of simply as "Washington. 11 Here is an 
unusual photograph from Washington, taken at the instant lightning 
struck the Washington Monument. 

Photograph Through Courtesy of The Washington Post 



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VOLUME IV" FEBRUARY L- 1937- MUMPER IE- 



"If I know aught of the spirit and purpose of our nation, 
we will not listen to Comfort, Opportunism and Timidity. We will 
carry on." 

Because President Roosevelt's inaugural address was heard 
and published everywhere, it is not reprinted in "Indians At Work." 
The address was one of those infrequent utterances which have the 
quality of "being universal in meaning while yet pointing to instant 
application in practical affairs. Among its myriad applications 
are Indian affairs and Indian life. Some commentators objected 
that the President did not discuss particular mechanisms, bills, 
reorganizations, and immedia.te tactics. He discussed instead the 
eternal choice which faces peoples and individuals alike, now and 
until the doom, and he brought his language and his examples close 
enough to the political instant so that he who thinks, at all can 
make his own applications. 



"Choose well. Thy choice is 
Brief and yet endless." 

and 

"Come, then, since all things call 
us, the living and the dead, 
And o'er the weltering tangle a 
glimmering light is shed, 
Come, join the only battle wherein 
no man can fail , 

Where whoso fadeth and dieth, yet his 
deed shall still prevail." 



The editorial which follows is supplied by Willard W. 
Beatty, Director, of Indian Education. 



J. C. 



Growing up has always been considered important. In the 
olden days most of our Indian tribes had annual ceremonies during 
which the young men or young women of the tribe who had arrived at 
maturity were initiated into the responsibilities of manhood or 
womanhood. This was a very solemn occasion and was assumed to wipe 
away the irresponsibilities of youth and to entitle the fortunate 
individual to many privileges. 

In a similar way white people also have developed cere- 
monies to mark the stages of growing up. Interestingly enough the 
ceremony of graduation from school has become known as "commence- 
ment." It is exceedingly difficult for one still in school to 
understand why the end of something should be called "commencement." 



The explanation that it represents the beginning of participation 
in life outside of school makes little impression at the time. 
However, the further one gets away from his own commencement, the 
more evident it becomes that in leaving school he has entered a 
new world. 

This complete break between education and life is most 
unfortunate. If the work of our schools were planned more nearly 
in terms of life experiences this break would not be so pronounced 
and there would be fewer casualties among the products of our 
schools. 

In the Indian Service this disparity between what is 
taught to children in our high schools and the life with which they 
are confronted after graduation is possibly greater than elsewhere. 
In the past, our teachers have shut their eyes to realities and 
have attempted to educate Indian children without very much considera- 
tion for the conditions from which they spring or to which, in a 
majority of cases, they must of necessity return. 

Likewise, the aid which the Federal Government is set up 
to render the Indian has been weakest at this point of transition 
from the educational world to the work-a-day world. To the older 
Indian, in the autumn of life, the Government gave relief; to the 
Indian of middle ages it gave help in his farm problems, in the 
leasing of his lands, and now to those in organized tribes, loans 
and aid in establishing cooperative agencies for buying and selling; 



to the Indian child it gave clothing, food, shelter, and an educa- 
tion; to the Indian youth stepping out into life to find his place 
it turned a deaf ear. With a training which unfitted him for his 
home environment, and with no help in gaining a foothold in the 
world at large, the Indian youth has drifted. A life of aimless- 
ness and insecurity often unfits a man for eventual success. There- 
fore when the educated Indian again gained attention, he was some- 
times beyond rehabilitation to self-support. 

In this disregard of the student after graduation, we 
were treating the Indian as we treat the white. A fundamental dif- 
ference however, has "been ignored. The family of the white child, 
in most instances, has an established position in the economic 
fabric of society and is therefore able to assist the youngsters 
to find a niche for themselves. The Indian child, however, comes 
from a family which is itself struggling for a foothold in a new 
and complex world. 

When the Indian child returned to dependence on his family 
we frequently spoke with regret of his "reversion"; yet we did little 
to assist him to any other form of stability. Such a state of af- 
fairs has been wasteful in the extreme. 

We have been growing increasingly aware of this problem. 
Every day our Indian schools are becoming more concerned with the 
home environment from which the pupil springs and to which he will 
in all likelihood return. Studies are being made of the assets 
which he possesses in terms of native talents, land allotments, or 



tribal interests and these are being taken into consideration in 
his education guidance. There is increased concern in seeing that 
the hoy who has learned farming may have a chance to become a 
farmer after graduation, that the hoy who has learned to he a shoe- 
maker shall have an opportunity to earn his living as such, either 
working for someone else, or in a shop of his own. 

A surprisingly large number of Indian boys and girls 
possess assets which they might learn to put to use, if these facts 
were taken into consideration during their high school training. 
Students who own land or who may have the use of land, are being 
taught to do things which will enable them to make a living with 
that land. Our agricultural schools are planning work programs by 
which students may earn stock or money or other values so that they 
enter adulthood with certain capital assets. 

Many of our Indian youth, however, must leave school with 
no place to go. The older countries of Europe have long recognized 
the need of youth for aid in fitting into the social pattern, and 
the family of a young man or woman makes a definite, contribution 
to getting the young person started. In the United States this has 
not been considered either necessary or desirable because of the 
limitless opportunities which nature offered "along the frontier." 
Today the frontier has disappeared. The parental relationship to- 
ward our Indian youth, accepted by the Government, places upon it a 
grave responsibility to provide opportunities for the trained, com- 



petent, and able young Indians to get a start in a life activity 
"by which they may become permanently self-supporting. 

Many of our Indian high schools today, through their 
Proceeds of Labor Fund, are making it possible for older students 
to earn a nest egg with which to begin their permanent life ac- 
tivities. Others, through cattle herds and other live stock ac- 
tivities, are enabling Indian young people to earn heifers, poultry, 
or other life stock. For the young Indian who owns land or whose 
family owns land this offers a concrete opportunity to become ec- 
onomically established. However, some provision must be made for 
the Indian high school graduate who is without personal resources. 
In the long run, it will prove much less expensive to give our In- 
dian young people a constructive means of earning a living than to 
support them through "made work" or various forms of relief. Some 
Federal aid for the homesteading of these individuals is indicated. 
Let us give meaning to this period of transition into adulthood - 
and make our high school graduation indeed a "commencement." 

Willard W. Beatty 
Director of Education 



fflHTER SCENES FROM FLATTOAP RBSEHVATIQN IN MONTANA 




Mission Range From Flathead Valley 




Harding Peak (9500 feet) At Left and McDonald Peak (9800 feet) At Eight 



SENATE AND HDUSB COMMITTEES ON INDIAN AFFAIRS ORGANIZE 



The House and Senate Committees on Indian Affairs of the first ses- 
sion of the Seventy-Fifth Congress have recently heen organized and new members 
named. Elmer Thomas of Oklahoma continues as Chairman of the Senate Committee; 
Will Rogers of Oklahoma will again lead the House Committee. 

The Senate Committee membership is as follows: 

Elmer Thomas, Democrat* of Oklahoma. 

Eurton K. Wheeler, Democrat, of Montana. 

Henry F. Ashurst, Democrat, of Arizona. 

William J. Bulow, Democrat, of South Dakota. 

Carl A. Hatch, Democrat, of New Mexico. 

Joseph C. O'Mahoney, Democrat, of Wyoming. 

Vic Donahey, Democrat, of Ohio. 

Dennis Chavez, Democrat, of New Mexico. 

Edwin Johnson, Democrat, of Colorado. 

Ernest Lundeen, Farmer-Labor, of Minnesota. 

Henrik Shipstead, Farmer-Labor, of Minnesota. 

Lynn J. Frazier, Republican, of North Dakota. 

Robert M. La Follette, Jr., Progressive, of Wisconsin. 

Frederick Steiwer, Republican, of Oregon. 

New members of the Senate Committee are Mr. Edwin Johnson of Colorado, 
Mr. Ernest Lundeen of Minnesota and Mr. Henrik Shipstead of Minnesota. 

Mr. Johnson has been a rancher, a business man, Lieutenant-Governor, 
and Governor. He comes to the Senate in place of Senator Costigan who did 
not run for re-election. 

Mr. Lundeen has been a representative in the Minnesota Legislature, 
an editor and publisher, has served two terms in the House of Representatives 
ant) now is beginning service as a Senator. 

There wat, a vacancy on the Senate Committee during the last session. 
This is being filled by Senator Shipstead, now in his third term. 

Senator Thomas looks forward to a session of effective work by his 
committee: "The Senate Committee considered and reported favorably on over 
a hundred bills during the last session. Practically every bill reported was 
passed by the Senate. The affairs of the several tribes are given prompt at- 
tention by the Senate Committee and no difficulties are expected in either 
the Committee or the Senate on Indian legislation during the coming session. 
The Committee is working with the Office of Indian Affairs and is trying to 
carry out its policies." 



8 



The House Committee membership follows: 

Will Rogers, Chairman Democrat Oklahoma 

Wilbu.ni Cartwright Democrat Oklahoma 

Joe L. Smith Democrat West Virginia 

Samuel Dickstein Democrat New York 

Thomas 'Malley Democrat Wisconsin 

Henry E . Stubbs Democrat California 

Knute Hill Democrat Washington 

Elmer J . Ryan Democrat Minnesota 

James P. 'Connor Democrat Montana 

Nan W. Honeyman Democrat Oregon 

John R. Murdock Democrat Arizona 

Harry R. Sheppard Democrat California 

Bernard J. Gehrmann Progressive. . .Wisconsin 

Dewey W. Johnson Farmer Labor. .Minnesota 

R. T. Buckler Parmer Labor. .Minnesota 

Fred C. Gilchrist Republican. . . .Iowa 

Fred L. Crawford Republican. . . .Michigan 

Francis H. Case Republican. . . . South Dakota 

Fred J. Douglas Republican. . . .New York 

There are still two vacancies on the House Committee , one of which 
will probably be filled by Delegate Anthony J. Dimond, Democrat, of Alaska, 
who has already served the committee for two terms. 

The interests and backgrounds of the new members have been varied. 

Mr. Case has been a newspaper editor and publisher and has been in- 
terested in Indians and their problems for many years. He has as one of the 
clerks in his office a young Indian woman from one of the five Sioux reserva- 
tions in his district. 

Mr. Douglas has been a surgeon and a commissioner of public safety 
and mayor of Utica, New York. 

The first Oregon congresswoman, Mrs. Honeyman, has been interested 
in various civic and state reforms and has served in the Oregon legislature. 

Mr. Murdock has been a teacher, a writer of textbooks on history 
and government, and dean of the Arizona State Teachers College. 

Mr. O'Connor has been a lawyer, a special counsel for the Federal 
Trade Commission, a judge, a member of the Montana legislature and a stockman 
and rancher. Since he represents eastern Montana, six of the seven Montana 
reservations lie within his district. 

Mr. Sheppard has had a varied career as a business executive. He 
has long been interested in the Indians of his own area, the nineteenth dis- 
trict of California, which includes Orange, Riverside and San Bernardino coun- 
ties. 

"I am well pleased indeed with the personnel of the House Indian 
Committee," said Chairman Rogers, when he learned of the committee assignments. 



THE NAVAJO BLIZZAED 
By E. R. Fryer, Superintendent Navajo Service - Window Rock, Arizona 



This snowstorm which laid a blanket of snow varying from 14 to 16 
inches over most of the Navajo country came with all the fury of a blizzard 
on Monday night, December 28. Snow fell all day Tuesday. The storm moder- 
ated somewhat Tuesday night; Wednesday there were only occasional flurries. 
Thursday morning was bright and clear. Thursday evening however, the storm 
returned again with tne intensity of a blizzard. It snowed constantly until 
about noon on New Year's Day. As the storm abated high winds swept in from 
the southwest which piled the snow in huge drifts and made travel impossible. 
Temperatures during the storm here varied from 35 degrees above zero to at 
least 10 degrees below. 




Finding The Snowbound Navajo 8 . 
(The symbols near the arrow's point show the approximate 
location of the Pinon Camps.) 



Tuesday morning following Monday night's blizzard, which blanketed 
the central portion of the reservation with from 12 to 16 inches of snow, 
brought the first reports of suffering. A call came first from the school 
teacher at Wide Ruins' who reported that 300 Navajos who had assembled near 
there for a Fire Dance, were hopelessly snowed in. The teacher reported 



10 



food supplies as "being short and stated that if the roads were not opened im- 
mediately, suffering from exposure and hunger would soon result. The expos- 
ure was much more of an immediate danger since the Indians, accustomed to the 
very mild winter we have had thus far, were not at all prepared for the bliz- 
zard and the sub-zero temperatures which descended the last day of their Fire 
Dance. 

Tuesday noon, trucks were dispatched from G-anado and late Tuesday 
night had "broken a trail to the suffering Fire Dancers. 

Two Little girls Lost At Keams Canyon 

The next report came from Keams Canyon where two little girls, aged 
six and eight years, after having "been returned to their homes from school 
Monday afternoon, had, started to visit the neighboring hogan about a mile and 
a half distant. The storm came shortly after they left home. When they had 
not reported at the neighboring hogan several hours after they left home, the 
father became worried and notified the Keams Canyon Agency which called upon 
us for assistance. All available men on ECW and other projects in the vicini- 
ty of Keams Canyon, together with a large number of Navajo volunteers, began 
a search for these children on Tuesday morning. Tuesday night exhausted search- 
ing parties returned to Keams Canyon reporting no success The tired crews 
went out again on Wednesday morning, returning Wednesday night with the same 
report. By this time we had to give up hope as it would not have been pos- 
sible for the children to have lived unsheltered through the fury of that 
storm. 



A False Lead 

No further reports of suffering came in until New Year's morning. 
However, we had felt some anxiety for pinon nickers whom we knew to be in the 
area south of Ramah. These Indians, we knew, remained in the area in spite 
of the warnings given them by the Navajo Service stockman who had been in- 
structed to get the Indians out of the Zuni Mountains and the adjoining areas 
as soon as possible after the middle of December. (Everyone here remembers 
the unseasonal storm which descended and trapped pinon picking Navajos in 
this identical area in the winter of 1932.) New Year's morning Kelsey, the 
trader at Zuni, called Mr. Trotter about ten o'clock and said that Navajos 
in from the high country south of Zuni reported that there were about 2,000 
Indians snowbound in that country , most of whom were trapped with but very 
little food and without transportation, since most of them had been trucked 
in by traders at the beginning of the pinon season. We felt that there was 
some truth in the statement relayed by Kelsey, but believed that his infor- 
mant had exaggerated the number of Indians involved. We telephoned Mr. Roy 
Shipman at Zuni, and asked him if he would try to get through the almost im- 
passable road to Ramah and investigate this report. 



11 



Meantime TWA headquarters in Albuquerque called and stated that the 
pilot on the plane then arriving reported what he considered to be a distress 
signal near Beacon 62, which is about 20 miles southwest of Grants. The pilot 
reported that he saw a red Navajo blanket spread out on the snow to attract 
attention. Believing it futile, because of the deep snow, to run down these 
reports with ground crews, I called Bill Cutter, Department of Agriculture 
contract pilot in Albuquerque, and asked him if he would leave there at once 
and make a reconnaissance of the area, south of Remah and land in Gallup that 
afternoon. 

Accordingly, Cutter left Albuquerque about one-thirty. In the mean- 
time we dispatched a snowplow to Gallup to clear the air field to enable him 
to land. .The snowplow we.s followed by two trucks laden with supplies. Our 
rendezvous was to be the Gallup airport; the destination of the sup-oly trucks 
would depend on Pilot Cutter's re-port. After having fought snow and soft 
ground for more than two and a half hours we had no sooner cleaned a narrow 
snowbanked line runway when Cutter's orange Fairchild came winging in from 
the east. 

We had worked like stevedores to be ready when Cutter landed and 
reported. His unexpected report anticlimaxed a hectic day and affected us 
like a slap from a wet sponge. After all our excitement, Cutter made the 
classic statement, "There aren't any Indians out there." He had run down 
the TWA report and had found only the red roof of an emergency gasoline sup- 
ply shack sticking out of the snow. He had flown the area south of Ramah and 
Zuni. The only life he had seen was a large band of sheep which had been 
herded into a canyon for the warmth of bonfires built for that purpose. 

Hunting The Pinon Pickers By Plane And Truck 

Cutter's report and a telephone conversation with Mr. Roy Shipman 
at Zuni changed our plans. Shipman had made it through to Ramah and had re- 
ceived a report from Mr. Bond, a trader there, that unquestionably there 
were at least 350 Indians in the area about 40 miles south of Ramah. Mr. 
Shipman further reported that he had plenty of supplies on hand and that if 
needed he could dispatch them from Zuni with an hour's notice. Therefore, 
we decided to send the snowplow through that night to the Department of Com- 
merce field at El Moro to clear the field by ten o'clock the next morning 
by which time Cutter and I expected to have completed an air reconnaissance 
of all the area fifteen to sixty miles south of Ramah and Zuni. 

The next morning an extremely heavy ground fog and very low temper- 
ature - twelve degrees below zero - delayed our daylight start until ten a.m. 
While waiting for the fog to lift and for the improvised heater to "do its 
stuff" on the motor to get the plane started, we filled the cabin of the plane 
with slabs of bacon and red flagging. We took bacon because it is sustaining 
and could be dropped from the plane without damage. The flagging was taken 
to tie to the bacon so that it could be found in the white snow. While the 
engine was warming up and just a few minutes before the take-off a man came 
running across the snow from the direction of Gallup. 



12 



The man said, "Are you the fellows that are going looking for those 
snowbound Indians?" We said, "Yes", and he said, in a rather positive tone, 
"I can tell you where they are." He proved to he Hed Cox, a "freighter", 
who had "been hauling supplies from Gallup and who had set up business in the 
pinon area to trade with the Navajo nut pickers. ("Freighters" are not regu- 
lar licensed traders hut do a small seasonal business off the reservation.) 
Cox was positive that there were at least 350 Indians stranded in the area 
about sixty-five miles south of Ramah because he had left there only two days 
before. Baffled by heavy snows, he had been forced to travel 300 miles via 
Magdalena and Albuquerque in order to reach Gallup. He arrived at Gallup with 
a broken truck. 

Cox was asked if he would be willing to act as a guide for a supply 
truck which would leave immediately for Gallup and try to get into the strick- 
en area by way of Albuquerque and Magdalena. He agreed. 

The supply trucks which we had planned to send in via Eamah were 
commandeered dump trucks, totally unsuited to haul supplies. The Soil Conser- 
vation Service came to the rescue with a two-ton stake truck which had been 
sent out from Gallup at once by Transportation Manager Ed Turner. The truck 
was loaded with canned mutton, flour, coffee, bacon, milk, hay and grain. The 




Navajo Pinon Pickers Being Taken Out Of The Snowstorm Area 

13 



hay and grain were sent because Cox reported that the horses belonging to the 
Navajos were dying of starvation. Cox was expected to reach Pietown "by raid- 
night Saturday and expected to reach the stricken Navajos by noon the next 
aay, Sunday. 

Cutter and I took off from the Gallup airport at 10:20 a.m. We 
landed at El Moro twenty minutes later where the field ha,d been cleared early 
that morning by our snowplows. On the basis of the information received from 
Cox, which proved reliable, we sent the snowplow back to Gallup. Cox said 
that the bridges in the remote country south of El Moro were so frail that 
it would be impossible for equipment so heavy to cross them. Then too, since 
later reports of the stricken Indians proved that they were more accessible 
from Highway 60 and Magdalena than from Ramah we decided to depend on that 
route for our supplies. We took off from El Moro about eleven o'clock and 
first crisscrossed the pinon mesas southwest of the El Moro landing field. 
We covered the area south and then flew on across the salt lake to Quemado, 
a small settlement on Highway 60. We had traveled over two hundred miles 
and had sighted no Indians other than those who habitually live in that areas. 
We saw other bands of sheep searching for blades of grass and sagebrush un- 
covered by drifted snow. We felt no urgent concern for these Indians since 
they had shelter and meat. 

Found! Two Snowbound Groups 

Near Quemado, we flew over a lonely ranch house. These people upon 
hearing the plane rushed outside. We circled and decided to drop a note tied 
to a red flag inquiring if there were stranded Navajo pinon pickers in that 
area. This we did. In answer to our inquiry, a boy drew a huge "No" in the 
snow. We decided that we were too far west, dipped our wings as a "thank 
you", and flew in an easterly direction, north of Highway 60. We had flown 
perhaps thirty miles and had seen only deserted snowbound ranch houses when 
we came to another house out of which people rushed to see the plane. We de- 
cided to drop another note. This note brough imrnedia.te response. A little 
girl drew a huge arrow in the snow pointing in a northeasterly direction. We 
dipped our wings, then flew east, making circles across a heavily wooded 
mountain slope. 

We had flown perhaps another hundred air miles when deep in the 
woods we sighted a lonely Navajo brush shelter. We would not have seen this 
shelter had not the boys waved frantically to us with what appeared to be a 
red Navajo blanket. We circled lower and lower, not daring to fly'very low 
because of the deep mountain slopes, until we could distinguish three or four 
crude shelters. There were probably ten or fifteen Navajos clustered around 
these huts all waving to attract our attention. We threw slabs of bacon, 
marked by red flagging, down to them and continued our circling of this moun- 
tain slope. About ten miles from this camp we sighted another Navajo group. 
These pinon pickers had apparently taken over a deserted ranch hut. They, 
too, seemed to sense that the plane was there in their behalf and waved 
frantically to us with sticks and blankets. We circled as low as we dared 

14 



and dropped slabs of bacon. We aade notebook locations of these canrps, using 
the mountain peaks as a reference point. We completed our circle of this 
mountain and noticed a truck led by a Navajo horseman breaking its way through 
the snow in the direction of these camps. 

By this time our gas supply was running dangerously low, so we de- 
cided to duck back into Gallup, refill the tank and get any reports that might 
have come in. There were no new reports and by the time we had filled our 
tank with gasoline there was too little daylight left to make another flight. 

There is no question but what we flew over a great number of Navajo 
camps which we did not see. We had expected to locate these camps from the 
smoke of their fires. Strangely enough, in flying over this entire area we 
did not see a single wisp of smoke. If these people did not have fires they 
must have suffered tremendously. The thermometer on the plane registered 
fifteen degrees below- zero at 9,500 feet. If they did have fires, they must 
have used only very dry cedar. It had not occurred to them, apparently, to 
use green wood and make smoke fires so that they might be located. 

A Later B u lletin - January 5. 

last night we received the first word from the truck sent into the 
Pietown area with supplies. 

Mr. Baxstrom from the Regional Forest Office, U.S.I.S. Albuquerque, 
who accompanied this truck upon my request to Mr. William Zeh to lend what- 
ever assistance he could, reported last night from Magdalena. He stated that 
there are between 425 and 450 Indians in the area eight miles north of Pie- 
town. These Indians, according to Mr. Baxstrom, refused to leave, believing 
that with clearing weather they can continue picking pinons. Apparently, this 
group of Indians have not suffered to any great extent. 

Thirty miles north of Pietown the supply truck found the Navajo 
outfit to whom supplies had been dropped from our plane last Saturday. One 
of these grouns consisted of eleven people, all women and children. Among them 
was a two-weeks-old baby. These people, who had suffered miserably from hunger 
and exposure, had been taken into that section by a Gallup trader at the be- 
ginning of the pinon season. 

The second group found by the supply truck consisted of twenty 
people, three of whom were men; the rest women and children. The group, I 
gather, was entirely out of food and had suffered considerably from exposure. 
The eleven women and children were taken out as far as Magdalena where they 
were housed that night in an auto court. At that point Mr. Baxstrom made ar- 
rangements with a CCC camp at Magdalena to transport them to Gallup. They will 
arrive at Gallup tonight where they will be picked up by one of our trucks and 
taken to their homes in Gallup-Two Wells area. This morning our supply truck, 
with a rented truck, is returning for the twenty Navajos remaining in that 
area. 

15 



January 6 . 

Last night Mr. Allstrora telephoned again from Magdalena stating that 
he had found about 75 more Indians in the "Peak Area" over which we flew. The 
great majority of them were women and children. 

January 8 . 

Mr. Allstrom telephoned that there were about 50 more Navajos with- 
out transportation who were snowed in and needed help. On the basis of this 
information a "caravan" of trucks was formed and three men were placed in 
charge of the Navajo removal; one was placed at Magdalena to gather them; one 
was to accompany the truck between Gallup and Magdalena; one to distribute 
the Navajos on the reservation. 



January 12 . 

Three hundred Indians have been taken out of the snow area and we 
are still hauling. Too much credit cannot be given Mr. Allstrom of the 
Regional U.S.I.S. Forest Office who is still working twenty hours a day fight- 
ing snowdrifts to get into the stranded pinon "camps." 



REORGANIZATION NEWS 

A resume of constitution and charter elections in recent months 
shows the following results: 

The Oneida, Wisconsin constitution was accepted November 14 by the 
tribe's vote of 742 to 18. 

On November 21 the Fort McDermitt Indians of the Carson Agency, 
Nevada, ratified their constitution by a vote of 62 to 9. 

On November 28, the Fort Yuma, California constitution, (a previous 
draft of which had been rejected by a vote of '138 to 129; was accepted by a 
vote of 129 to 116. 

The Papago constitution was accepted on December 12 by a vote of 
1340 to 580. The story of the working out of this constitution is told on 
page 21. 



16 



IMPORTANT INDIAN SERVICE EDUCATION MEETINGS SCHEDULED 

The month of February will witness several important meetings in 
the Indian Service. The first and second will be devoted to an invitational 
meeting of school superintendents and principals interested in the problems 
raised or settled by the introduction of scrip into our boarding schools. 
Sherman Institute and Salem Indian School have pioneered in the introduction 
of a money substitute with which to pay pupils for work done and with which 
the student pays for clothing and sometimes food and other advantages, as 
well as admission fee to games, plays and similar campus activities. The 
scheme has demonstrated a number of clear-cut advantages and has also re- 
vealed weak points. At this conference it is hoped through discussion to 
determine an improved technique for the administration of the scheme which 
may allow for its introduction into several other schools which wish to profit 
by its advantages. 

Beginning on the 16th of February, a four-day gathering of regional 
superintendents of education is being held at Hot Springs, Arkansas. This 
group will be joined on February 18 by the education field agents and social 
workers for a two-day session. Problems of public school relations, relief, 
social problems, budgeting and so forth will be discussed. This meeting will 
be followed by gatherings of a number of Indian Service employees at the 
National Education Association Department of Superintendence which is being 
held at New Orleans the 2lst to 24th and the Progressive Education Associa- 
tion in St. Louis from the 25th to the 27th. 



17 



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18 



" HILL 57" 
By D'Arcy McNickle 
Administrative Assistant - Office Of Indian Affairs 



People sometimes ask why one should devote thought and effort, 
particular thought and effort, to the "Indian problem. " Meaning, of course, 
that the problems of poverty and social maladjustment are as hroad as the 
modern world; and meaning, too, that these problems can't he treated in a 
vacuum; and meaning, finally, that the slum-dweller, whether of the Indian 
reservation or Manhattan variety, is enmeshed in a system which must he taken 
apart and put together again in a better socio-economic pattern, not palli- 
ated. All of which is true. 

Leaving that question for the moment, let me bring into focus one 
picture of the "Indian problem." 

The background is Great Palls, Montana, or rather, sharpening the 
focus, what is locally called "Hill 57" - - in dubious tribute to the enter- 
prise of a pickle manufacturer. Let me sketch for you what you would have 
seen and felt if you had been with us in these first winter days. 

The Missouri was frozen over. The thermometer stood at 14 degrees 
below zero and would go lower. A strong stinging wind blew down the river 
valley. 

We left town, crossed the river and then went up the slope toward 
the bluffs which mark the river's ancient bank. There, scattered in the 
snow, were the flapping tents and patchwork shacks of some of Montana's home- 
less Indians. The situation is wholly exposed. It is windy, always windy, 
and treeless and grassless. Barren as a rock. 

We knocked at many doors; were asked in. This is a composite pic- 
ture, many focus sings, of what we saw. 

A woman - black hair, parted in the middle and hanging in braids; 
her face long and narrow and smiling; eyes blinking at us; her hands rubbing 
a piece of buckskin to soften it. Children playing quietly on a sagging bed, 
cutting out the chic women who pose in the slick magazines. Men asking 
questions, expressing doubt, looking their suspicion, eyes searching us to 
get at our deeper design. We remember having heard it remarked that these 
people are filthy and we looked for filth. What we see is that the rooms 
are unbearably crowded with boxes and bags of belongings, obtruding dilapi- 
dated furniture, cooking utensils and children - too many children. The 
floor is the prairie, overlaid with pieces of figured linoleum and old car- 
pet. The stove is a gasoline drum with wood hole and bottom draft chiseled 



19 



out. And here people live on the thin edge of community tolerance. They are 
squatters. They are Indians who have no rights anywhere. For most part they 
are a legacy of the fur trade, the romantic fur trade of "singing voyageurs" , 
which made fortunes for its gentlemen exploiters and left behind it, every- 
where, problems of racial disintegration for pioneer society, coming of age, 
to solve. The gentlemen exploiters have never been concerned. Perhaps no 
one has called these things to their attention. 

A century and more ago the ancestors of "Hill 57' s" casuals were 
on Red River in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company. 

Red River was strategic in the trade. It was the food factory. 
Every year the "breeds", French-Cree-Chippewa, killed thousands of buffalo, 
stripped and dried the meat, pounded tallow into it and packed it in 90-pound 
rawhide sacks. This was the pemmican which was sent all over the Northland, 
as the chief dietary staple of the Company's employees. Red River also 
furnished guides and canoemen, laborers of all sorts, including the clever 
artisans who constructed, entirely of wood, the great two-wheel carts which 
carried, screeching, the traffic of the prairies where there were no rivers. 
And when the voyageur lost his supoleness and skill he usually went back to 
Red River to a little piece of ground on the river bank to spend his days 
en menage and wait for the long rest. Nobody gave him a paper saying he 
owned his piece of ground. In those times nobody but the Company could have 
given such a paper and the Company was not selling land. 

In 1873 the northwest territory passed from the Company's jurisdic- 
tion to that of the Canadian government. The province of Manitoba was carved 
out first. The Queen's surveyor went out to Red River. Trouble, long brew- 
ing in a pot in which smallpox, famine and the encroaching white settlers 
were mixed together, broke out with the coming of the surveyor. He was going 
to take over the land for the Queen. 

There was brief fighting but the Red River buffalo hunters and 
coureurs par excellence , wild and imprudent and full of song, never had a 
chance. When they fought Her Majesty's Red Coats they foolishly exposed 
themselves to flying lead to sing songs of the old days of daring. Quel 
betesse ! 

And they had no paper for their land. 

They had to run for it. Up to Duck Lake, in what was soon to be 
the Province of Saskatchewan. Again they squatted, laid out their Red River 
villages, narrow strips of land running side by side back from the river - 
the Saskatchewan, this time. 

The same story again. In 1885 Her Majesty's surveyors caught up 
with them once more and again fighting broke out. The western prairie flamed 
for a few weeks. A general uprising of all the prairie Indians was feared. 
It had been expected for years. The Indians, however, faltered, backed down. 



20 



It was the old Red River people who caught the recoil and had to go on the 
run. This time to the United States, in whose territory many of them had ac- 
tually been born. There they found asylum from the Red Coats, "but no land. 
No recognition from Washington. They squatted wherever they could, at other 
reservations, on the edge of Montana's prairie towns, on "Hill 57." 

That is a telegraphic account of the history of these t>eople, now 
living so precariously on the edge of community tolerance. Such derelicts 
do not make good company for respectable towns. Their living nags at con- 
sciences. Their rags are an offense. No doubt they depreciate real estate 
values. No doubt many a community has secretly wished that the whole lot 
of them could be quietly lethalized in some humane way. 

Sitting in a wind-drummed tent on "Hill 57", one thinks beyond 
these people to Indians everywhere and remembers what one has heard so many 
times — "Poverty is everywhere in this world. Why be concerned about 
Indians?" 

One can answer the interrogation, at least partly, if one recalls 
that in Mexico, in Spain, in Ireland, in every country where the land has 
been taken away from the peasants, from the only people to whom land really 
belongs, there has been, sooner or later, bloodshed, hanging and burning. 
Indians of the United States are too few and too broken in this latter day 
to a.ttempt to take by force what is theirs, as the peasants of other coun- 
tries have attempted, sometimes successfully. But theirs is the same need; 
theirs is the same hunger. The task is to understand that and to provide 
for it, witfully. To that extent one's concern about Indians need be no 
mere special pleading; it can be a realistic approach to the future. 

Give the Indians land, not land to sell, but land to use. In 
their ancient economy they understood production for use rather than for 
profit. Perhaps old memory will stir in them. Perhaps we will yet learn 
from them. 




A Typical Home On "Hill 57" 



21 



FOREWORD OF INDIAN OFFICE ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1936 



The annual report of the Secretary of the Interior to the President 
for the fiscal year 1936 is now in print. As copies of the complete report 
are scarce, and available only to agencies and executive personnel » Commissioner 
Collier's foreword is reprinted here. 

"An annual report on Indian affairs, were it adequate, would he a 
report on the whole life of a race. What follows describes governmental ac- 
tivities and only through shadowy implication reveals the forces of life work- 
ing within the reviving Indian population of more than 230 tribes and bands. 

"For many decades the Indians were thought of, and they thought of 
themselves, as a dying race. Numerically they were dying. As battling groups 
they had lost their fight. As civilizations their day was ended. 

"Then very gradually but unmistakably the Indians' life-tide se.emed 
to turn. The critical change goes back a decade and a half, or longer. Three 
years ago, the basis of Indian law was altered. Indian law had presumed the 
cessation of Indians. The changed law presumed their permanence and their in- 
crease. Indian Service, the Indians' mind, the general public's mind, became 
hopeful of the Indians' future. This future would be realized in terms of 
numbers increasing, not dwindling; of property holdings increasing, not con- 
tinuing to melt away; of cultural values preserved, intensified and appreci- 
ated and sought for by the white world and no longer treated as being signif- 
icant only in terms of an outlived or crushed primitive world. 

"All of these evidences of new birth and new assurance have been 
forthcoming in the recent years and never so richly as during the year just 
closed. The population record alone is an impressive one. Indians are in- 
creasing faster than any other group in the United States. Full-blood Indians 
are increasing at more than one per cent a year. This, although the orevent- 
able morbidity rate is still excessive. 

"From 1887 to 1932, the average diminishment of Indian landholdings 
was 2,000,000 acres a year. Now, an increase is recorded at the rate of hun- 
dreds of thousands of acres a year. But the land supply of fully half the In- 
dians is all but hopelessly insufficient. Their economic level, by and large, 
is still the lowest in the United States. 

"The renascent Indian spirit has shown two great evidences. One of 
these is the universal, eager resoonse of Indians to the opportunity to work 
and their faithfulness and technical capacity when employed. The other is the 
adoption by more than 180 tribes of the Indian Reorganization Act and their 
self-control and enterprise in organizing their common life under the author- 
ities of the act." 



22 



THE ORGANIZATION OF THE PAPAGOS 
By John H. Hoist 
Supervisor of Indian Schools 




The Papago 
Reservation extends 
for sixty miles along 
the Mexico-Arizona 
Border and lies in the 
center of the great 
Sonora Desert which 
extends north from 
Mexico into the United 
States. It is occupied 
by some five thousand 
people who have lived 
in that territory for 
many hundreds of years. 
Prom the parent center 
near the Mexican border, 
offspring villages have 
grown up to the north, 
each in turn becoming 
parent to another group. 

The Papagos, 
like their neighbors 
and blood brothers, 
the Pimas, to the north, 
belong to the great 
Aztecan language fami- 
ly. For uncounted 
generations they have 
occupied their nresent 
land, an inhospitable 
desert refuge rather 
than a land of promise; 
yet even here they have 
in times past suffered 
from marauders, chief 
among whom, in former 
years, have been the 
Apaches. The Spanish 



The Papago Desert In Arizona 



23 




A Papago Family Near Big Fields, Arizona. 



Conquistadors of the sixteenth 
century disturbed them little 
while the zealous Spanish 
Friars endeared themselves 
to the Papagos by their un- 
selfish and understanding 
devotion to their welfare. 

The more than fifty 
villages of modern Papagueria 
arrange themselves in natural 
community grouns around parent 
villages where live the head 
men and the wise men who rec- 
ognize the provinces of the 
sub-chiefs of the offspring 
villages. 



These Tho-ho-no O'otam, these desert men, have through centuries 
adjusted themselves to a satisfying life in the great desert. They have 
learned to live happily where others cannot live and to utilize what others 
do not want. They have learned to work together in family groups and closely 
related units where every individual has his place and his rights and wherein 
each contributes to the whole. Nowhere is there more consideration given to 
the individual on the one hand or more felt responsibility of the individual 
for the group on the other. All important actions must be by unanimous con- 
sent and without undue pressure from anyone or faction. The Paoagos have not 
yet reached the stage of larger group action through representatives. 

When the Papagos express their desires to retain their "old laws and 
customs", they refer mainly to their methods of group action and to their 
ceremonials, chief among which is their annual rain dance, a formal prayer 
for rain, and the only ceremonial at which the sacred wine is used. Individual 
villages and communities of villages have their rain ceremonials at planting 
time. Most other ceremonials and festivals are more social than religious in 
significance. 

For long centuries these desert men were left to themselves to make 
adjustments to a most hostile and inhospitable country and in the struggle, to 
acquire a rugged independence and at the same time, antagonism to encroachments 
from the outside on their independence, even though encroachments came under 
the guise of benevolence. The old Montezuma movement, which really means, 
"outside hands off", has been progressively strengthened, especially since the 
removal of the agency from San Xavier to Sells in 1917, until now about four- 
fifths of the Papagos are Montezumans. The little group of "Government 1 * or 
"Progressive" Indians stand for every benevolent government imposition, while 
the Montezumans oppose all impositions, benevolent or otherwise. 



24 



Is it strange that primitive, untutored Papagos should realize that 
government benevolence is only an insidious means of spiritual subjugation? 
They reject it, not out of perversity but because a fundamental tenet of their 
religion is the right of the individual to be self-supporting as an evidence 
of his independence. They have a simple faith and an abiding confidence in 
an over-ruling Providence. Everywhere, their old men and their wise men say 
to the representatives of materialism, "Let ray people go, that they may work 
out their own salvation according to their destiny under the providences of 
nature which they respect, whether or no they understand." Any educational 
or relief program imposed upon the Papagos would be progressively destructive 
of all the finer aspects of their spiritual life. Organization, then, should 
be a means through which they are to realize their aspirations under a wise 
and sympathetic guidance which allows to them the fullest measure of self-ex- 
pression consistent with their charter of authorization - and organization 
is now making progress. 



Sells, Arizona, December 7, 1935. 



Organization of the Papagos beginsl The first big meeting today. 
Nearly 200 delegates and visitors from the eleven districts and more than 50 
villages. They vote to undertake organization but refuse to select or indorse 
a constitutional committee until authorized to do so by their various communi- 
ties. This is as it should be. They are a virile, primitive people. Ethno- 
logical backgrounds are fundamental in all matters relating to organization. 
Especially in the outlying districts are there very active remains of their 
ancient organization under a system of chieftainships. These, also their old 
customs, still function in ways satisfactory and beneficial to them. They 
have never been accustomed to a central governing body or united tribal action. 
They have petty chiefs but no general leaders; they have intra-tribal antag- 
onisms and localized patriotisms. The dominant party throughout the reserva- 
tion is the Montezuma which stands for "Outside hands off." The more vocal 
minority party is the 
"Government" or "Progres- 
sive" which stands for, 
demands, and accepts all 
government aid and govern- 
ment rather than Papago 
responsibility. 

Sells, Arizona, December 
15, 1935. 

Meetings all 
over the reservation the 
past week - big meetings 
- and all for organiza- 

One Of The Charcos At Sells 




25 




A Papago Woman 



tion when they •understand it. 
Unhurried, they must think, 
then act. And they must have 
confidence in their advisers. 
What a responsibility for 
advisers who are determined 
to deal openly and sympathet- 
ically with the aspirations 
of a people and who are yet 
at a loss to know what will 
he approved by vested inter- 
ests which have less regard 
for the human factor and the 
immutable principle. 



Everywhere "the delegates to the constitutional committee have 
been selected. The Delegate Assembly last Saturday decided on a committee 
of 25 - too many, but they wanted it so. The committee meets tomorrow. A 
great occasion. 

December 16, 1935. 

The great Constitutional Committee is in action. A schoolroom at 
Sells has been vacated for their use . The men have come in from every point 
of the compass. Some of them were on the way two days. Two field represen- 
tatives and an anthropologist are present. A capable and sophisticated menm 
ber of the committee has taken the direction of all deliberations. The Pima 
constitution is to be studied as a guide. The committee men are plainly be- 
wildered. They are old men or middle-aged men. Only three of them can 
speak any English. Nearly all are Montezumans. There is disappointment and 
lapsing interest. 

December 21, 1935. 

The first rough draft of the constitution is finished. After a 
day and a half of fruitless study, the Pima constitution was cast aside and 
members were invited to express themselves as to what they considered of 
most importance for their constitution. Interest again, and animation. They 
held closely to the work in hand. There was a pathetic struggle for expres- 
sion, not only into a foreign tongue, but also into a foreign system of 
thought governed by a different philosophy. 

What they said was gathered up by sympathetic advisers and put in- 
to a semblance of logical form and under appropriate captions. Then again it 
was submitted to review and discussion. The result was a somewhat crude 
document, but virile and representative of real Papago thinking. Yet, from 
the first, it was evident that it would not satisfy the minority party or 
special vested interests and some slight changes would be necessary to make 
it legal. 



26 



The Constitution will now be published and submitted to review and 
general discussion. It starts on a stormy way. 

May 2, 1936. 

Four months have passed since the drafting of the constitution - 
four months of strife and turmoil and the building up of antagonisms. The 
constitution has been through a long series of meetings. Further work awaits 
the close of the long hot summer now at hand. 



October 9, 1936. 

All is calm again in Papagueria. During tne past two weeks the old 
constitutional committee has been reorganized; misunderstandings have been 
cleared up and others anticipated. The opposition committee of seven have 
joined the original committee in a fine spirit of compromise and helpfulness. 
The suggestions from the Solicitor's Office have been accepted by unanimous 
vote in twenty-three instances. The constitution is on its way to the Interior 
Department for approval. 




Bear Canyon Dam - Baboquivarl Mountains, Sells Agency 



How quickly the sky can clear after a. season of storm'. How quickly 
can the violence of human emotions subside and allow reason to rule as mutual 
respect for ideas and personality begin to appear and understanding dawns. 



27 



December 12, 1936. 

Election day! A year of intensive education over. Ballot boxes 
have gone out to the desert villages and to the mines and cotton fields be- 
yond the borders of the reservation. The months of discussion are over and 
now there is an orderly recording of decisions. 

Evening, and the locked ballot boxes are coming in to be opened in 
the presence of the august election board. The telephone is busy with ad- 
vance returns which are recorded on the big bulletin board for the informa- 
tion of the waiting crowd. It is a real election with all the trimmings. 
The majority for the constitution continues to roll up as the evening advances. 
The Papagos are under a constitution. 



AFTER ELECTION 

By Superintendent T. B. Hall, Sells Agency, Arizona 

(Taken Prom "Aw-O-Tahm-Pa-Tac" - Papago Progress - December 15, 1936.) 

On December 12, the people ratified the constitution and by-laws for the 
whole tribe by a vote of 1,340 for and 580 against. Over half of the people 
twenty-one years old and over turned out and voted. This made me very happy 
because it shows that most of the people are interested in the affairs of the 
tribe and it shows that- most of the people want a constitution and by-laws 
and want to have a voice in managing the affairs of the tribe. This election 
was a free election. Any member of the tribe twenty-one years of age and over 
was entitled to vote any way he wanted to. 

Now that we have adopted the constitution and by-laws, we should all lay 
aside our past differences and work together to make the land better. 



While no call has been issued as yet for the first meeting of the coun- 
cil, I think it would be a good plan for the people of each district to be 
thinking about whom you would like to have on your district council and whom 
you would like to have represent you in the Papago Council. Last spring 
the people organized temporary district councils and a temporary Papago 
Council in the same way as your constitution says it should be done. I think 
the plan you followed last spring in electing your district councils and hav- 
ing the district council select the two representatives to represent the 
district in the Papago Council was a very good plan, but, of course, if you 
want to select your representatives in a different way, your constitution says 
you can do that. In any free election there is always difference of opinion — 
some people are for a thing and some are against it. I think some difference 
of opinion is a good thing because if some are against a proposition, it causes 
the people to think more and be a little more careful than they might be if 
there were no opposition. 

28 



OLD INDIAN BUREAU ANNUAL REPORTS REVEAL POLICY DEVELOPMENTS 

From time to time "Indians At Work" will publish excerpts from the 
Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs of other years. Much that 
is informative and revealing, not only of official attitudes, hut of official 
attitudes as a reflection of public wishes with regard to Indian liberties and 
Indian property, lies buried in these Annual Reports. And much of good inten- 
tions and high-mindedness is also there, as a caution to all of us who are 
concerned with devising a future for underprivileged peoples. History has a 
way of dealing ironically with high-mindedness, which is reason enough for 
knowing what has been tried in the past, and if possible, learning why it 
failed. 

The excerpt quoted below gives some idea of the impatience with 
which government of another year pressed civilization upon its Indian wards 
and of how the way was prepared for the eventual adoption of the General Al- 
lotment Act in 1887. 

"Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the Annual Report of 
the Indian Bureau for the year 1679 . 

"During the year there has been a steady and manifest progress in 
civilization which has had no parallel in any previous year in the history of 
Indian civilization under this government. The spirit of progress cannot be 
said to have pervaded all tribes alike, or with equal force; but, as a whole, 
the Indians of the country have taken a long stride in the right direction to- 
ward complete civilization and eventual self-support. The most decided advance 
in civilization has been made by the Oglala and Brule Sioux, and their progress 
during the last year and a half has been simply marvelous. They have manifested 
an excellent disposition and shown commendable zeal in carrying out the plans 
of the government for their benefit. 

"It is no longer a question whether Indians will work. They are 
steadily asking for opportunities to do so and the Indians who today are will- 
ing and anxious to engage in civilized labor are largely in the majority. 

29 



There is an almost •universal call for lands in severalty and it is remarkable 
that this request should- come from nearly every tribe except the five civilized 
tribes in the Indian Territory. There is also a growing desire among Indians 
to live in houses and more houses have been built and are now in course of 
erection, than have been put up during any previous year. The demand for 
agricultural implements and appliances and for wagons and harness for farming 
and freighting purposes is constantly increasing and an unusual readiness to 
wear citizens' clothing is also manifest. 

"The loss of the buffalo which is looked upon by Indians as disastrous, 
has really been to them a blessing in disguise. They now see that they must 
get their living out of the soil by their own labor and a few years' persever- 
ance in the beneficial policy now pursued will render three-fourths of our In- 
dians self-supporting. Already very many tribes have a surplus of products 
for sale. 

"The only exception to the general improvement for the year is shown 
in the bad conduct of the White River Utes and the marauders in New Mexico 
which will be referred to hereafter. 



A Patent For Land 

"The more intelligent and best disposed Indians are now earnestly 
asking for a title in severalty to their lands as a preliminary to supporting 
themselves from the products of the soil. The number of persons who can be 
employed in stock raising is small, since comparatively little labor is re- 
quired and few men can herd and take care of a thousand head of cattle; but 
the cultivation of the soil will give employment to the whole Indian race. 
The only sure way to make Indians tillers of the soil, under the best condi- 
tions to promote their welfare, is to give each head of a family one hundred 
and sixty acres of land and to each unmarried adult eighty acres and to is- 
sue patents for the same, making the allotments inalienable and free from 
taxation for twenty-five years. 

"A bill to carry out this beneficial object was submitted to the 
extra session of the Forty-sixth Congress (H. E. 354). It was carefully pre- 
pared by the department to meet all the wants of the situation and was sim- 
ilar to a bill which had been introduced into the Forty-fifth Congress and 
had been favorably reported on by committees in both Houses, but which had 
failed to receive action. The speedy passage of such a bill would be a great- 
er boon to Indian civilization than any other that could be bestowed. As will 
be seen throughout this report, the willingness of the Indian to work has al- 
ready been demonstrated. Give him the land and the opportunity and the re- 
sult is a foregone conclusion. But so long as he has no individual title to 
the land he is asked to cultivate, the fear that it will some day be taken 

30 



from him will operate as a serious hindrance to his progress. With the Indian 
as well as the white man industry and thrift have their root in ownership of 
the soil. The uatenting of lands in severalty creates separate and individual 
interests which are necessary in order to teach an Indian the benefits of la- 
bor and induce him to follow civilized pursuits. 



I ndian Education 

"The work of promoting Indian education is the most agreeable part 
of the labor -performed by the Indian Bureau. Indian children are as bright 
and teachable as average white children of the same ages; and while the progress 
in the work of civilizing adult Indians who have had no educational advantages 
is a slow process at best, the progress of the youths trained in our schools 
is of the most hopeful character. During the current year the capacity of our 
school edifices has been largely increased and some additional schools have 
been opened. 



Granarie s And Ro ot Houses 

"Indians in their natural state are exceedingly improvident and while 
for one year, if left to themselves, they might -procure seed and raise a large 
crop, the probability is that before the next planting season their supuly of 
seed would be entirely exhausted. It is necessary, therefore, to exercise some 
forethought in their behalf and during the current year the office has directed 
agents to construct granaries and root houses and to call uoon each Indian who 
has been engaged in farming to deliver at the agency a sufficient amount of seed 
for the next crop. In return, the agent gives a receipt for its safe-keeping. 
This of course renders it necessary for the agent to have a place of storage 
where the seeds or roots will be safe from destruction or frost. 

"It is not unusual for Indian traders to give Indians credit to an 
amount not only sufficient to absorb their whole year's crop but also to demand 
in payment for debt even the amount left over for seed. For this reason trad- 
ers have been enjoined not to give Indians credit but to let them pay in cash 
and products as far as they may go. 

"These granaries and root houses which are necessary to make sure 
that the Indians do not part with their seed to satisfy passing wants, have 
been completed or are in course of construction for the following agencies: 
Cheyenne River, Lower Brule, Crow Creek, Yankton, Fort Berthold, Sisseton, 
Blackfeet, Crow, Flathead, Shoshone, Yakima, Tulalip, Neah Bay, S'Kokomish, 
Siletz, Umatilla, Round Valley, Cheyenne and Arapaho , Pawnee, Osage, Sac and 
Fox, Santee, Omaha, Winnebago, Great Nemaha and White Earth. 



31 



WORKING FOR CHILDREN'S CLOTHES AT POTATO CREE K - 
FINE RIDG-E RESERVATION , SOUTH DAKOTA 



Dear Editor: 

I am sending in 
this story and two pictures 
for use in "Indians At Work", 
hoping that you. will put it 
in our fine magazine for In- 
dians. The first picture 
was snapped near the "bridge 
just a few rods west of 
Medicine Bow Day School, our 
day school here in Potato 
Creek village on the Pine 
Ridge Reservation. It is a 
picture of myself and John Yanktcn and Joe Morrison; also my team. The man 
driving the team is myself, the one in the center is John Yankton and the 
other one is Joe Morrison. Will H. Spindler snapped this picture one day 
last September when we parents were working around the school to earn our 
children's school clothing. Mr. Spindler is the day school teacher here at 
Medicine Bow Day School and this day school is on the Pine Ridge Reservation 
about 20 miles south of Interior, South Dakota. It used to be called No. 23 
Day School but now we have a new name for it. We three men put a new floor 
on this bridge and graded up the dirt on both sides. We also hauled a few 
loads of gravel on this new dirt, 
again. 




So now we have a good safe bridge here 



This was the first year that we had the Clothing Work Project on 
the Pine Ridge Reservation and at first we Potato Creek people did not under- 
stand all about it and some did not like it. But we all met with Mr. Spind- 
ler several times in Septem- 
ber and he explained it all 
to us. So then we all took 
hold and pulled together 
with Mr. Spindler and the 
school and everything went 
along fine. And I think our 
day school was one of the 
first schools on the Pine 
Ridge to finish working out 
the clothing for the chil- 
dren. Some of the projects 
that we worked on here at 
Medicine Bow Day School were 




32 



"banking Tip the buildings, cutting and hauling thistles for hay, graveling 
the school grounds, repairing fences, fall plowing the school garden and so 
forth. 

I am also sending you a picture of some of the men hauling gravel 
here on the school grounds. These five men in the graveling picture are 
(left to right) Silas Red Horn, Tom Swimmer, Brooks Wounded Head, Earl Blue 
Bird and Pete Wounded Head. Mr. Spindler snapped this picture too. We al- 
ways help Mr. and Mrs. Spindler in the school and community matters and so 
we all get along fine together. 

We finished the Clothing Work Project last fall so that now we are 
working on other projects for rations. Most of us Potato Creek families are 
very hard up , so this work sure helps us out . I am the foreman on these 
projects in working out for rations and my men are all good workers. So now 
I will close my story and I hope you will know what we are doing here in the 
Potato Creek community. Prom Charles Under Baggage, Sr . 



HOLST BEGINS ADULT EDUCATION PLAN 



During the month of January, John H. Hoist, Supervisor of Indian 
Schools, has been released to the Education Division by Indian Organization, 
with which he has been associated for the last year and a half. Supervisor 
Hoist has made an enviable record with Indian Organization in that all of 
the tribes with which he has worked have not only accepted the Reorganization 
Act, but have also approved the constitutions which he has shared in prepar- 
ing. His work with Education will continue to be concerned with reorganiza- 
tion problems, for Mr. Hoist is being assigned the development of an adult 
education program to broaden and strengthen tribal understanding of the new 
rights and duties which they gain through the acceptance of constitutions 
and charters. 



COVER DESIGN 

The cover page design which appears on this issue of "Indians At 
Work" was submitted by Bert Poneoma, a Hopi Indian who is a student at the 
U. S. Indian School at Santa Pe, New Mexico. 

The drawing was adapted from an ancient Hopi design. 

33 



s 



O 



w 



PL, 



g 

SI 

SI 

2 



l-H 



to 



Pi 

SI 




34 



HELPING- THE NAVAJO S HELP THEMSELVES 
By M. E. Musgrave 
Soil Conservation Service, U. S. Department Of Agriculture 




Spillway Construction At Mexican Springs, New Mexico. 

Taking advantage of the goods which the gods provide is nothing new 
to the American Indian. Probably because of this the Soil Conservation Serv- 
ice staff at the Mexican Springs Station spent some time in studying the work 
of present and prehistoric Indians. From it a technique in a land-management 
urogram was developed that included, first of all, the use of natural materi - 
als at hand for our work. We felt that if we were to do a job that would be 
of great value to the people we were serving, it would have to be done with 
rather primitive equipment. It was contended, moreover, that by using the na- 
tive ability in taking advantage of natural conditions, the additional costs 
brought about through the use of the primitive equipment might be offset. 

Our job is to increase the productivity of the Navajo lands in or- 
der that they may take care of the rapidly increasing population. Formerly, 
Navajos had farmed a great deal more in this area than they do at the present 



35 




Navajo Girl Standing Near a Mammoth Sunflower 
Raised With Flood Irrigation Near Nakai Bi'to 



time. Because of the gully- 
ing of their fertile valleys 
by erosion and the consequent 
lowering of the water table, 
however, and the creation of 
a too-rapid drainage system, 
the acres of cultivable land 
became fewer and fewer. They 
were finally forced to depend 
more and more on their sheep, 
cattle and goats for a live- 
lihood. 

All of these things 
were taken into consideration 
in forming a program for the 
management of the Navajo Ex- 
periment Station located at 
Mexican Springs, north of 
Gallup, New Mexico. 



Making Flood Waters Work For Us 

Water, the most valuable natural resource in the Southwest, had be- 
come an enemy because it was washing away the most valuable land that the 
Navajos had. Therefore, our first thought was directed toward water conserva- 
tion. Water had to be diverted from the arroyos where it was concentrated 
and doing great damage, and put where it could be spread over the fertile 
top-soils and made to work for us. Navajos understood that kind of work be- 
cause they had always practiced flood irrigation until the arroyos got so 
deep that their primitive engineering structures could not handle them. They 
knew that if this water could be spread, there would be plenty of grass. 



Foundation Stock Improved 

With that in mind, they also knew that they could take care of a 
much better class of live stock, so they consented to sell their cattle and 
replace them with purebred Herefords. Following that, they traded their 
none-too-good sheep for purebred Eambouillets, giving two of their sheep for 
one purebred. 



Diversion Dams and Dikes Hold Water Back 

In the meantime, construction was started on dirt diversion dams, 
our objective being the building of a diversion dam across every water course 
entering the Experiment Station area.. This work was started in 1934 and com- 
pleted in June, 1936, so that at the present time no water is allowed to 
cross the area via gullies or arroyos. 



36 



All dam construction was carried on by the Navajos with slip 
scrapers and light teams and under Navajo foremen with only a construction 
engineer in general charge. Very little material outside of native earth 
and rock was used. We realized that this method and type of construction 
might he slightly more expensive than work done with big machinery, much 
cement and other materials, but the Navajos had plenty of time and only this 
sort of equipment, so again we took the natural materials at hand and put 
them to work because it was something that the people with whom we were 
working understood and could do themselves without the aid of high salaried 
technicians, big equipment and costly materials. 

In addition to these larger structures, additional work was done 
on a small compact watershed of 450 acres, consisting of a number of small- 
er individual watersheds. On it were built detention dikes with rock spill- 
ways and leveled areas behind these detention dikes ranging in size from 
about one-half an acre to two or three acres. Our purpose there was to store 
moisture in the ground by holding it back and then to raise a crop -orin- 
cipally on stored moisture. This is almost necessary where we depend on 
flood waters, because the rainy season begins in July and is too late to 
develop a crop before the frost gets it in the fall. On the other hand, 
if enough stored moisture is available to germinate seed and keep it alive 
until the rainy season, splendid crops can be raised. 



Flood Waters G-ive Bountiful Crops 

The Service established 
nine areas in this 450-acre water- 
shed and by the same methods sever- 
al larger farms and three orchards 
were made in various parts of the 
area. We planted beans, peas, corn, 
barley, rye and alfalfa. Even 
though we were optimistic, the re- 
sulting production was a surprise. 
Practically everything we planted 
did well and enough produce was 
raised on these little plots to 
take care of the needs of a large 
Navajo family with vegetables, in 
addition to which there was some 
hay and grain for domestic animals 
and sufficient silage for a small 
trench silo. The water held back 
on these little farms, besides 
raising crops, was prevented from 
running into the main arroyos and 
ca.using damage. 




Wrecked Navajo Land 



37 



The live stock did especially well. The Rarabouillet sheep sheared 
an average of more than twelve pounds of wool per sheep as compared with four 
pounds from the sheep that had been traded off. Our cattle did well and we 
have some excelent yearlings. 

This year about forty tons of wild hay were cut and fifty tons of 
ensilage were put up. On the higher elevations where live stock had nearly 
destroyed vegetation, seasonal grazing was permitted. After the seeds of 
the grass and weeds were ripe, we not only fattened some five hundred sheep 
■belonging to the Navajo people hut we used them to scatter the seed out of 
the vegetation, harrow it into the ground with their feet and distribute it 
over the range by means of their wool. This practice has been going on for 
two years and very gratifying results have been obtained. 

All live stock used in the experiment is owned by the Navajos. The 
female stock is owned individually and the breeding males, by the community. 
In addition to the purebred Rambouillet sheep and Hereford cattle, we have 
two excellent purebred Morgan stallions and a good Missouri jack, all either 
purchased or traded for by the Navajo people. 

An Old Navajo Speaks 

The recovery of the range, the increase in forage and stock pro- 
duction and the Indian crops present a striking picture of what the Navajo 
country will do when its resources are properly and intelligently used. 

I recall the statement of an old Navajo, made sometime ago at a 
chapter meeting at Coyote Springs. 

He raised his wrinkled face with its blind eyes and spread his 
arms dramatically. His voice quavered slightly as he spoke. 

"Our land was once beautiful," he said. "There were tall trees, 
many places. There was water in the streams where deer and other game came 
to drink. And there was grass, much tall, green grass waving in the wind. 
It was ni-zon-ih, very pretty." 

He paused while several of the older hearers nodded. Slowly he 
continued: 

"Now they tell me that all these things are gone. I can no longer 
see but I know they speak the truth. The wind is hot and dry and it is 
filled with sand. There is little grass left for the ponies. I can feel 
their white ribs through the skin. It is very bad." 

All were silent. None could voice a denial. 



38 










■jffl 



Orchard Planting 
Mexican Springs, New Mexico 

"It nay "be that we have caused these things ourselves. We are told 
that we have too many ponies and too many sheep and goats. This means many 
hungry mouths eating on the grass and other plants. Very soon they're all 
gone. " 

Again a silence. 

"But now," he continued more firmly, "it is going to he all right. 
These white men are going to help us. We will plant many things and make 
them grow. Pretty soon there will be much grass and many trees. It is good 1 ." 



Note ; The pictures included in this article were loaned through the courtesy 
of the U. S. Department Of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service. 



39 



VIEWS FROM PINE RIDGE RESERVATION, SOUTH DAKOTA 




First Aid Demonstration 



Creosoted Windmill Tower 

Ready For Transportation 
To The Field. 





as^i 







* 

trfiiTJir^iirn-r- ~ v -n -' 


* ^ffn M ,i,,. 


Bhh 




■^BSbl^^QBb^I 







Partially Completed Spill- 
way At Kyle Stock And 
Recreation Dam. 



40 



INDIAN SERIES GOES ON LOCAL RADIO STATIONS 
By Gerard Beeckman, Editorial Assistant To The Commissioner 



For the first time in its history the United States Indian Service 
is making use of the nation's radio facilities. Beginning about January 1, 
nearly 170 independent radio stations located in every state, with the ex- 
ception of Nevada, Utah and Wyoming, and including Hawaii have written they 
will carry the first of a series of orograms dealing with the historical 
background, development and oresent-day life of the American Indian. In the 
list of stations to broadcast the series are eighteen operated by colleges 
and universities, including Purdue, Michigan State, Kansas State, University 
of Oklahoma., Washington State, Iowa State, University of South Dakota, South 
Dakota School of Mines, University of Wisconsin, University of Florida, Texas 
A. & M. , New Mexico A. & M. , Grove City College, Pennsylvania, Oregon State 
Agricultural College and Iowa A. & M. 

Subjects to be covered by the series of thirteen programs are: 

I. Origin of the Indian; 2. Ancient Indian Civilization; 3. Cultural Areas 
of North America and Variations Among Tribes; 4. Indian Contribution to Amer- 
ican Culture; 5. History of Indian-White Relations; 6. Indian Customs and 
Rituals; 7. Arts and Crafts; 8. Industry; 9. Education; 10. Extension; 

II. Homes and Home Life; 12. Indian Reorganization; 13." United States Indian 
Service. 



M. W. Stirling, Duncan Strong and Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology have cooperated with the Indian Service in ore- 
oaring orograms dealing with the origin and ancient history of the Indian 



race . 



The radio stations, ranging from 50 watts to 20,000 watts in power, 
which have indicated they intend to carry the programs, are as follows: 



KABR, Aberdeen, South Dakota 

KADA, Ada, Oklahoma 

KARK, Little Rock, Arkansas 

K3IX, Muskogee, Oklahoma 

KOVC, Redding, California 

KDON, Del Monte, California 

K3HE, Los Angeles, California 

KERN, Bakersfield, California 

KFBI, Abilene, Kansas 

KFDM, Beaumont, Texas 

KFEL, Denver, Colorado 

KFEQ, St. Joseph, Missouri 

KFGQ, Boone, Iowa 

KFJZ, Fort Worth, Texas 

KFOX, Long Beach, California 

KFPL, Dublin, Texas 

KFQD, Anchorage, Alaska 



KFXD 
KGCU 
KGDE 
KGEK 
KGER 
KGEZ 
KGFG 
KGFW 
KGGC 
KGGM 
KGMB 
KGNC 
KGNF 
KGNO 
KHBC 
KHSL 
KIUP 



Nampa, Idaho 

Man dan, North Dakota 

Fergus Falls, Minnesota 

Sterling, Colorado 

Long Beach, California 

Kalispell, Montana 

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 

Kearney, Nebraska 

San Francisco, California 

Albuquerque, New Mexico 

Honolulu, Hawaii 

Amarillo, Texas 

North Platte, Nebraska 

Dodge City, Kansas 

Hilo, Hawaii 

Chico, California 

Durango , Colorado 



41 



Minot, North Dakota 
Oakland, California 
Shenandoah, Iowa 
Medford, Oregon 
Fresno, California 
Tacoraa, Washington 
Beverly Hills, California 
Brady, Texas 
Oakland, California 
Albuquerque, New Mexico 
Eugene , Oregon 
Lake Charles, Louisiana 
Denve r , Colo rado 
We si a co, Texas 
Lewiston, Idaho 
Shreveport , Louisiana 
Oakland, California 
Manhattan, Kansas 
San Francisco, California 
Santa Fe, New Mexico 
Lowell, Arizona 
Yuma, Arizona 
Vermillion, South Dakota 
Tucson, Arizona 
Hutchinson, Kansas 
Stockton, California 
Decor ah, Iowa 
Pullman, Washington 
SI Centre, California 
San Francisco, California 
Boston, Massachusetts 
Jersey City, New Jersey 
Anderson, South Carolina 
Zanesville, Ohio 
Atlanta, Georgia 
Hazleton, Pennsylvania 
West Lafayette, Indiana 
Ponca City, Oklahoma 
New York, New York 
Camden, New Jersey 
Asbury Park, New Jersey 
Rapid City, South Dakota 
Joliet, Illinois 
Meridian, Mississippi 
Boston, Massachusetts 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
Wilmington, Delaware 
Waterbury, Vermont 



WDSU 

WEDC 

weeu 

WELI 

WEST 

WEMP 

WEXL 

WFDF 

WGAL 

WGH 

WGPC 

WHA 

WHAT 

WHBF 

WHBQ 

WHDL 

WHEB 

WHLB 

WHOM 

WIBG 

WIBM 

WIND 

WIP 

WJBK 

WJBO 

WJBW 

WJEJ 

WJJD 

WJMS 

WJNO 

WJTN 

WKAR 

WKBB 

WKBH 

WKBV 

WKBZ 

WLBF 

WLEU 

WLNH 

WLTH 

WLVA 

WLWL 

WMBC 

WMBH 

WMBO 

WMBQ 

WMEX 

WMFF 

WMFO 



New Orelans, Louisiana 
Chicago, Illinois 
Reading, Pennsylvania 
New Haven, Connecticut 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
Royal Oak, Michigan 
Flint, Michigan 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania 
Newport News, Virginia 
Albany, Georgia 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
Rock Island, Illinois 
Memphis, Tennessee 
Olean, New York 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire 
Virginia, Minnesota 
Jersey City, New Jersey 
Glenside, Pennsylvania 
Jackson, Michigan 
Gary, Indiana 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
Detroit, Michigan 
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 
New Orleans, Louisiana 
Hagerstown, Maryland 
Chicago, Illinois 
Ironwood, Michigan 
West Palm Beach, Florida 
Jamestown, New York 
East Lansing, Michigan 
East Dubuque, Illinois 
La Crosse, Wisconsin 
Richmond, Indiana 
Muskegon, Michigan 
Kansas City, Kansas 
Erie, Pennsylvania 
Lowell, Massachusetts 
Brooklyn, New York 
Lynchburg, Virginia 
New York, New York 
Detroit, Michigan 
Joplin, Missouri 
Auburn, New York 
Brooklyn, New York 
Boston, Massachusetts 
Flattsburg, New York 
Decatur, Alabama 



42 



WMFR 

WNAC 

WNAD 

WNBC 

WNBH 

WNBX 

WO I 

WOP I 

WORK 

WPAD 

WPAR 

WPAY 

WPHO 

WQBC 

WRAW 

WEBL 

WRDO 

WRGA 

WRJN 

WROK 



High Point, North Carolina 
Boston, Massachusetts 
Norman, Oklahoma 
New Britain, Connecticut 
New Bedford, Massachusetts 
Springfield, Vermont 
Ames, Iowa 
Bristol, Tennessee 
York, Pennsylvania 
Paducah, Kentucky 
Parkershurg, West Virginia 
Portsmouth, Ohio 
Providence, Rhode Island 
Vickshurg, Mississippi 
Reading, Pennsylvania 
Columhus, Georgia 
Augusta, Maine 
Rome, Georgia 
Racine, Wisconsin 
Rockford, Illinois 



WRR , Dallas, Texas 

WRUF, Gainesville, Florida 

WSAJ, Grove City, Pennsylvania 

WSAR, Pall River, Massachusetts 

WSAY, Rochester, New York 

WSIX, Nashville, Tennessee 

WSPA, Spartanburg, South Carolina 

WSPR, Springfield, Massachusetts 

WSUI, Iowa City, Iowa 

WSVA, Harrisonburg, Virginia 

WSVS, Buffalo, New York 

WTAD, Qaincy, Illinois 

WTAL, Tallahassee, Florida 

WTAW, College Station, Texas 

WTBO, Cumberland, Maryland 

WTEL, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

WTFI, Athens, Georgia 

WTHT, Hartford, Connecticut 

WWAE, Hammond, Indiana 

WWRL, Woodside, New York 



INDIAN SOCIETY SEEKS COMPLETE LIST OF INDIANS HOLDING UNIVERSITY DEGREES 



The Society Of University Indians Of America, only Indian profes- 
sional society in the country, wishes to r>oint out that there are several 
hundred Indians scattered over the country who hold degrees of higher learn- 
ing equal to any held hy individuals who have had centuries of educational 
background. Among these are numbered many who are doctors of law, medicine, 
philosophy, pedagogy and divinity. 

Mr. William B. Newell, founder and president of the Society, writes 
that he is compiling a list of Indians who hold college or university degrees 
and that he would he glad to receive information about persons eligible for 
listing. The list now includes names of 68 Indians of whom 23 are members of 
the Society. 

Mr. Newell is Boys' Adviser at the Wahpeton Indian School at 
Wahpeton, North Dakota. 



43 



AN INDIAN STORY , AND A GOOD ONE 
By Edward Bear - Port Peck Reservation, Montana 

Here is a story. Years ago, when our people roamed these prairies, 
a certain man was out hunting. It happened to "be at the time of the year 
when game was scarce. Well, he went out looking around to see what he could 
find and, as the country was rough, he started to climb a hill. As he was 
on his way up the hill, he spied a mountain sheep lying asleep. He crept up 
close; it never moved; so he crept closer still. When he was almost on top 
of the mountain sheep, he spied a little herd of buffalo in the valley below 
him. So he just jumped straddle of the mountain sheep: The mountain sheep 
jumped up with the Indian on his back and started down the steep hill at top 
speed in the direction of the herd of buffalo. He ran right through the herd 
and the Indian started shooting buffalo right and left. The mountain sheep 
didn't stop; he just kept right on up the side of the valley but the Indian 
took him by the horns and turned him right back through the herd and shot a 
few more until his ammunition ran out. His mount kept right toward where he 
started from. As the old mountain sheep was going pretty fast, the Indian 
didn't dare jump off. He felt the mountain sheep's loins as he was running 
and as he seemed to be pretty fat he just pulled his old skinning knife, 
stabbed the sheep and dropped with him. So after getting the buffalo, he had 
the meat of the mountain sheep. 



44 



BITTER WEATHER AT WALAPAI BRINGS TWO CASUALTIES ; 
REMAINDER OF MAROONED GROUP SAFE 



I am happy to say that our road crew finally broke through to the 
forty marooned Walapais and brought them in to safety. Our road crew had 
been out for four days and we had received no word from them. We were there- 
fore much concerned about their welfare as well as that of the marooned Wala- 
pais. Our Senior Project Foreman, Mr. A. L. Jones, was in charge of the road 
crew. They had to break through snow from two to five feet deep in getting 
to the camp. When they finally reached camp they found all the Indians in 
good condition except that they were getting very hungry. Mr. Jones had the 
presence of mind to butcher a cow and feed them before starting back over the 
fifty-mile return trip. 

As I intimated in my telegram, we were very much concerned for fear 
that the Walapais at the camp would give up hope of our getting to them and 
that some of them would start on foot through the deep snow. This would have 
been almost certain death to any of them who would have attempted it. 

We had a small camp of seven men on the eastern side of the reser- 
vation. Two of these men started out for aid and one of them was found frozen 
to death within a half-mile of camp. The other one has not been found yet. 
It has now been about twelve days since he left camp and we have had no trace 
of him. We don't think that there is any hope that he will ever be found alive. 

The Commanding Officer of Marshf ield came to our rescue immediately 
upon our request for help. The landing field at Needles, California was the 
nearest point where they could land. We met them there with food supplies 
tied up in bundles ready to drop from planes. However, just as we were com- 
pleting our plans for flying and loading the food on the planes we got word 
through that Mr. Jones and. his crew had broken through the deep snow to the 
camp and that our Indians were all safe so we did not actually make the flight 
over the reservation. However, I feel that we are greatly indebted to General 
D. Emmons, Commanding Officer of Marshf ield, for his prompt action in coming 
to our rescue. Had our crew not broken through when they did, the aid of the 
bombing planes would have saved the lives of some of our Walapais because 
they were getting to the point where they felt they had to get out and get 
some food. 

We are glad to report at this time that all of our people are in 
safety, except the one missing and the one who was found frozen to death. 

It looks now as though we are going to have additional snow on top 
of the present deep snow. If this weather continues very long we will have 
an emergency need of funds for feeding our cattle. However, we are hoping 
to see warmer weather soon and if it does come we don't expect to have any 
trouble with our live stock. We are fortunate enough in having fine browse 
on our range and the cattle can go for a long period without grass. Letter of 
January 12 from Guy Hobgood, Superintendent, Truxton Canyon Agency, Arizona . 

45 



MR. PAUL COZE AND OS-KD-HON 




Photograph Reproduced Through Courtesy Of William van de Poll, Paris 

46 



" THE GREEN CORN OFFERING" 

Mr. Paul Coze, a French artist and admirer and friend of the 
American Indian, has sent to Commissioner Collier a copy of a hook of poems, 
"The Green Corn Offering." They are written by Os-ko-mon, a. Yakima Indian. 
Mr. Coze met him in Paris, where Os-ko-mon was riding horseback in a circus 
troupe, on the very day, says Mr. Coze, that Os-ko-mon had decided to leave. 
They became friends. Mr. Coze found that Os-ko-mon seemed to know and care 
little about his Indian background, and, in fact, felt that it had stood in 
the way of his success in the white world. Mr. Coze talked with him, not 
in persuasion, speaking of the might of his Indian heritage and of the power 
that comes from being one's self, rather than a reflection of one's surround- 
ings. He suggested that he try to think back on his Indian past. Then he 
left him alone. 

Ok-ko-mon began working at dances, songs and poems. "He soon 
showed he first was an interpreter, then a creator and lastly an artist in 
his successes and even in his faults," writes Mr. Coze. "Perhaps .... one 
might say that his words are too simple and too blunt. But one may think 
too that the 'Green Corn Offering' has value because he simply says what he 
thinks, while so many white people know how to use words without having any- 
thing to say." 

Os-ko-mon writes in English. The French translations which accom- 
pany the text were made by Mme. de Broglie and the preface and illustrations 
are by Mr. Coze. It is published by "Wakanda" , a Paris study group whose 
primary interest is the American Indian. 

47 



ROAD WORK AT CROW ASENCY , MONTANA 
By P. J. Van Alstyne, Acting District Highway Engineer 




Stone Masonry Bridge - Pryor Road, Crow Agency 



An unusual piece 
of road work is toeing done 
at Crow Agency, Montana, 
by the Indian Service 
Roads Division. An old 
railroad grade to Pryor 
is "being converted into 
a modern up-to-date high- 
way. For many years the 
Indians have used the 
grade as a road, hut he- 
cause of its narrow width 
and high fills, frequent 
accidents have occurred 
and the 26-mile stretch 
has he en dangerous to 
travel. It is being re- 



constructed under a two-year program into a modern graveled highway. 

The job provides many interesting engineering problems. The grade 
line of the road is already about as perfect as it can be, for it was used 
for years by the railroad company. The task has been to keep the grade line 
about the same, and still to widen the roadbed to a standard width, without 
borrowing or causing too much end haul. All of this work has had to be con- 
fined to a 60-foot right-of-way. 

Some of the original cast iron culverts are still in place. Where 
they are suitably located, they have been lengthened where possible and stone 
headwalls built to hold the dirt in order to stay within the limits of the 
right-of-way. The Road Division has had the cooperation of the county and 
Indian Service officials in securing W. P. A. labor for the culvert and bridge 
work. This labor has been used for quarrying stone from a nearby pit which 
road crews have used for both the bridges and culvert headwalls. It is planned 
to build six bridges out of this material. Practically all of the stone has 
been hauled from the quarry to the sites and is being cut and shaped during 
times when it it impossible to do other work. 

Last year the Road Division built a stone and brick garage and stor- 
age shed at the Agency; consequently this type of work is not new to our 
workmen. 



48 



FROM I.E.C.W. REPORTS 



Report From Shoshone ( W yoming ) 
The first part of the month found us 
in the middle of a very bad snow- 
storm, hut since the previous week 
the men had received their pay and 
bought winter clothes, the cold spell 
did not keep them from going out to 
work. Two crews were working up on 
the mountain; one cutting wood for 
the camp and the other was cutting 
stringers for the bridges which will 
be built on the new truck trail. 

r 

After the storm the snow drifted 
very bad on the switchback making it 
necessary for the road grader to go 
up on the mountain and open up the 
road. After the road was open the 
road grader kept on going over to the 
side of the mountain where the road 
had been graded properly, as at the 
time that it was first worked on, the 
dirt was loose and very dry and would 
not pack when the blade was grading 
it. Since the storms the ground re- 
ceived plenty of moisture and the 
road was in good condition for blading. 

As soon as the trail builder was 
required the builder was sent to Brooks 
Saw Mill where it will keep the road 
open in that vicinity until the logs 
for the ranger cabins are hauled out. 
One crew has already gone up there to 
start foundation work on the locality 
on one of the cabins. 

Weather conditions have deemed 
it advisable for the men to stay in- 
doors but they still keep on with 
their basket ball pra.ctices. To date 
they have played three games, winning 



them all by wide margins. A club has 
been organized for the puruose of cre- 
ating amusement during the long winter 
nights, raising money to buy a radio ■ 
and other things such as games, books 
and athletic goods. Meetings are held 
every week on Monday nights. Club 
dues are ten cents a month and other 
sources of revenue are from fines im- 
posed on the men who break some of 
the camp rules. 

Safety meetings are held every 
Wednesday night in camp. During these 
sessions, ways of preventing accidents, 
how to avoid accidents, how to use 
hand tools and how to ride trucks 
are discussed. Besides this the men 
are giving instructions in first aid. 
Augustine Snder . 

Forestry Education Work At Coeur 
d'Alene ( Ida ho) In anticipation of 
starting the cruising project some 
preliminary education work in for- 
estry subjects has been started. The 
actual instruction has not started yet 
except for two days of introductory 
work in order that those interested 
might find out the nature of the work 
and classes so that they would know 
whether or not they will be interested 
enough to follow through with the work. 
All work (class work) will be done in 
the field as it is believed that it is 
nearly impossible to handle the subject 
satisfactorily inside. What lectures 
there are to be given will be given 
in the field as practical demonstrations 
may be given along with them. Much in- 
terest has been shown so far. Harold 
Wing , Project Manager . 



49 



Erosion Control Work At Mission 
( California ) Crew is constructing 
two lines of woven wire fence about 
four feet apart, to "be filled with 
rock and brush, forming a diversion 
dam to hold flood waters in natural 
channel. Boulders and other debris, 
brought down in last year's storms, 
are being removed from the channel, 
in order to allow storm water to 
lower same to natural grade . The 
present condition is largely due to 
an extensive brush fire which 
cleaned the upper slope of the drain- 
age area of vegetation over a year 
ago, followed by heavy winter rain 
which brought down e'arth, gravel, 
logs and boulders filling the chan- 
nel at point where grade change oc- 
curs. Robert H. Buck . 

Report From Rocky Boy' s ( Mon - 
tana ) Slow progress was made gravel- 
ing this week due to cold weather 
and frequent breakdowns of the 
trucks. Three trucks went out of 
commission this week which serious- 
ly handicapped the work. The cattle 
guard crew did not quite complete 
one guard on the Sangrey Road, be- 
ing handicapped by zero weather 
and snow. 

The forest improvement crews, 
however, made a good showing. The 
ground adjacent to camp has been 
cleaned up and the brush burned. 
William W. Hyde , Project Manager . 

Timber Estimating at Consoli - 
dated Chippewa ( Minnesota ) Another 
week and with it behind us, we 
look back on another successful 
period of this camp's operation. 

The most interesting project 
now in full swing and the one that 
we are most interested in, is that 



of timber estimating. The reports 
show discoveries of heretofore unknown 
riches in timber assets. Hidden pock- 
ets of timber are being unearthed be- 
hind dominating cliffs of rock, re- 
vealing more additions to the ever in- 
creasing potential wealth of our Grand 
Portage timberlands. 

This has been a busy week for rec- 
reational activities. Our boys were 
all invited to a party and dance at 
the Grand Portage School and Saturday 
night was spent at the Mineral Center 
School where our boys participated 
in games and dancing. ' 

Our basket ball team journeyed 
to Grand Marias Wednesday evening and 
opened the new basket ball schedule 
for this district. We sent one of the 
cleanest, hardest fighting teams of 
players that was ever seen on the gymn 
floor. Our boys won the game by a 
score of forty to twenty-three. Not 
one of our men showed any strain a- 
gainst the experienced Grand Marias 
team. Our team displayed everything 
a well-coached team can show. Andrew 
B. Lego . 

Work On Boundary Fence At Carson 
( Nevada ) The boundary fence work con- 
tinued during the past week with a few 
more men and another borrowed truck on 
the job. Our greatest problem con- 
nected with the fencing job is the 
transportation of materials to the lo- 
cation of the work. The present proj- 
ect is the southeast boundary which is 
about 24 miles distant from 'the reser- 
vation distance. This makes it diffi- 
cult in that it takes from one and one- 
half to two hours ' time to make the 
trip. However, we are making fair 
showing considering this. 

The hills tied onto the north 



50 



line axe high and rough so that cat- 
tle will not stray from the reserva- 
tion at this point. The digging has 
been hard and the surface of the coun- 
try over which the line runs is cut up 
with washes and other ravines. 

Work in connection with the 
drilled well has been going on to in- 
stall a concrete pit in which to place 
the machinery, pump and so forth. An 
excavation 12 feet square and four 
feet deep is being dug and will be 
walled up with concrete soon with a 
thick layer for the floor on which the 
machine or pumping plant will be 
placed. The large spud pipe around 
the well pipe will be taken out and 
the main pipe cut off even with the 
ground. Roy M. Madsen . 

Reuort From Truxton Canon ( Ariz - 
ona ) The Indians on the Yavapai Res- 
ervation have been getting along 
nicely on their projects during the 
week. Posts were hauled in from Wil- 
iarason Valley and work was started 
on the Fort Whipple fence. Yavapai 
Road and Whipple Well are almost com- 
pleted. 

Mr. All strom from the Albuquerque 
office dropped in and conducted a Red 
Cross school during the week. We 
were v&ry anxious to have all our 
leaders, machine operators and foremen 
attend the school which was held at 
Peach Springs. 

We are pleased to report that the 
Suraai Masonry Dam is now entirely com- 
pleted and ready to catch the first 
run-off. This project is a dam with 
a maximum height of thirteen feet 
built with limestone rock from the 
adjacent hillsides. Considerable time 
was required to secure and transport 
materials used in construction of the 
dam but the actual work of placing 



the rock required only about six 
weeks with a crew varying from nine 
to fifteen men. Mr. George Jones, 
the Indian leader in charge of the 
work, has completed a very excel- 
lent piece of construction and cannot 
be too highly commended for the way 
he has taken hold of the project and 
rushed it to completion. This is 
Mr. Jones' first job on the Hualapai 
Reservation but the manner in which 
he has attacked the work has earned 
him a high ranking in our supervisory 
force. Amos F. Barlow . 

Beetle Control At Warm Springs 
( Oregon ) The beetle crews are now 
in full swing and are working out 
on the Bear Springs Road near the 
North boundary. For this week they 
have covered 1,240 acres and treated 
sixty-one trees. Our spotting crew, 
together with the Old Mill crew, have 
covered 3,200 acres and spotted 211 
trees. 

The telephone construction crew 
working on the Agency-Simnasho tele- 
phone project have completed one mile 
of post hole digging and have set up 
one mile of telephone posts this week. 
They have been using the compressor 
on the rocky ground which they en- 
countered and then blasted the holes 
out. F. Murdock. 

Moving Activities At Pine Ridge 
( South Dakota ) A good deal of time was 
spent in finishing moving to the pres- 
ent location and establishing the new 
camp. Due to the fact that the weath- 
er condition during the month was 
ideal, there was good progress made. 
We have wrecked the old stock corrals 
at the Agency and hauled the material 
to the camp to be used in the con- 
struction of a corral there. This 
was completed and a considerable bit 
of progress was made on a second one. 
William Hamilton. 



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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBHAHIES 




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